Electrophysiological Test (EPS) for Cardiac Arrhythmia

Patients with arrhythmia may be required to undergo an electrophysiologic study (EPS). This is to determine which part of the heart is causing the disturbance in rhythm. This helps the cardiologist to decide the best course of medication, procedure or a device that may improve the pace to return to normal.

Doctor checking the heart rateAs a part of the EP study, the cardiologist reproduces the abnormal rhythm by recording the electrical activity and electrical pathways in the heart. In some cases, the cardiologist may recommend ablation procedure, which can be performed during the testing process itself. This procedure makes use of electricity to neutralize cells in the heart muscle that appear to be the cause of the arrhythmia.

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Preparation for the EPS Testing

Before the test, the patient must consult with the doctor regarding any ongoing medication for another disease such as diabetes or hypertension, or any anti-inflammatory medication. In case the patient has an allergy to any numbing medicines such as lidocaine, or any heart medications, it must be informed to the doctor so that any necessary adjustments to the medication may be made.

The doctor will also usually perform a blood test in advance to ensure that the patient is not at a high risk for bleeding complications. He will also advise the patient to remain on an empty stomach at least 12 hours before the test. The doctor will determine after the test if the patient may need to stay overnight at the hospital. The patient should have a companion to drive him back home.

How the EP Study is Performed

Ablation surgeryThe EP study may take anywhere between two and three hours to complete. However, the duration may be extended if the doctor decides to perform ablation treatment during the test. The patient is required to wear a hospital gown and lie on the back while the procedure is in progress. An IV line is placed in the vein to facilitate administration of fluids or medication during the test. Sophisticated cameras and equipment are used during the procedure to monitor the heart. The electrophysiologist threads several catheters to the patient’s heart with the guidance of a fluoroscope. These catheters assess the conduction system of the heart.

The doctor will make use of a pacemaker to induce rhythm changes in the heart. It may result in the patient experiencing palpitations. Some patients may also feel shortness of breath in this condition. Due to the numbing medication, the patient is not likely to experience any pain during the procedure. Some patients find it uncomfortable to lie still on their back during the testing process, while some others may experience anxiety.

Risks and Complications of EP Testing

The awareness of the patient is critical for them to know considerable risks involved with electrophysiological testing. It is essential to understand those specific arrhythmic episodes can pose a threat to the patient’s life. The test may purposely require the patient to experience a few extra episodes of such abnormal rhythms. The patient should note that the doctor is in the best position to do the risk-benefit analysis. And if he recommends the test, it is only for the betterment of the patient.

If the doctor decides to perform an ablation procedure during the test, it may carry some added risk. Ablation involves causing a minor scarring of a minuscule portion of the heart muscle. Although any complications from this procedure are rare, they may still occur, resulting in new rhythm changes in the heart. In a very rare situation, the ablation instrument may cause a hole through the heart, requiring emergency surgery.

 

Why Music Can Make You Cry

You have certainly experienced it. You turn on the radio and suddenly, a memorable song was played. Then you found yourself wiping the tears from your eyes. Sounds dramatic, as it seems, but it really does happen. Music has that power to make us cry and be nostalgic. It has the potential to bring us back in time.

Guitarist feeling the emotions in musicBut why is that so?

Stirring Up Emotions

One of the main goals of music is to arouse or stir up emotions. That is why it gives you various kinds of feelings whenever you hear the music. It can calm you or make you feel happy or excite you. Music can also motivate you or put you in a worshipping mode. This why lessons for the guitar in New York City have been very popular. Guitar music can be both used to convey emotions. Crying, on the other hand, is a complex human behavior that is often associated with various intense experiences. Humans cry when they experience physical pain or when they are hurt emotionally. Likewise, humans also cry when they are too happy, and they can’t contain it.

Music to Emotions

A new study was conducted to explain this. And according to the findings, whatever emotion you feel when you hear music or whether it can make you cry or not. It has something to do with your basic personality. Katherine Cotter and Paul Silvia, the researchers from the University of North Carolina, along with Kirill Fayn of the University of Sydney. They were in charge of the research to find out the various emotions that people feel when music prompts them to cry.

To support the study, a survey was conducted among 892 adults. To find out how many of them experience that is crying “feels” while listening or when they hear a certain kind of music. The initial result showed that it is not unusual to be moved to tears when you hear a tune. Approximately 89.9% of the people in the study said they had experienced that feeling. They want to cry whenever they hear the music. They were also asked to rank their feelings to accompany the response following 16 emotions which include happiness, anxiety, euphoria, awe, depression, sadness, pain, etc. In the end, the researchers divided the people into two groups – those who cry because of sadness (63%) and those who felt in awe (36.7%).

Psychology of Personalities

The brain reacting to musicThe participants were then given a psychological test to be able to classify them according to the five personality characteristics:

  • extraversion
  • openness to experience
  • neuroticism
  • agreeableness
  • conscientiousness

After the test was done, the researchers found out that those who have high neuroticism ranking scale. They feel sad when they had been moved to tears by music. Likewise, those people who ranked high in the openness to “experience” feel like crying because they are in so much awe.

This basically explains why music can give you that feeling like you want to cry when you hear it. It actually depends on the person or what that person is experiencing that moment he or she understands that music.