Why Music Can Make You Cry

You have certainly experienced it. You turn on the radio and suddenly, a memorable song was played. Then you found yourself wiping the tears from your eyes. Sounds dramatic, as it seems, but it really does happen. Music has that power to make us cry and be nostalgic. It has the potential to bring us back in time.

Guitarist feeling the emotions in musicBut why is that so?

Stirring Up Emotions

One of the main goals of music is to arouse or stir up emotions. That is why it gives you various kinds of feelings whenever you hear the music. It can calm you or make you feel happy or excite you. Music can also motivate you or put you in a worshipping mode. This why lessons for the guitar in New York City have been very popular. Guitar music can be both used to convey emotions. Crying, on the other hand, is a complex human behavior that is often associated with various intense experiences. Humans cry when they experience physical pain or when they are hurt emotionally. Likewise, humans also cry when they are too happy, and they can’t contain it.

Music to Emotions

A new study was conducted to explain this. And according to the findings, whatever emotion you feel when you hear music or whether it can make you cry or not. It has something to do with your basic personality. Katherine Cotter and Paul Silvia, the researchers from the University of North Carolina, along with Kirill Fayn of the University of Sydney. They were in charge of the research to find out the various emotions that people feel when music prompts them to cry.

To support the study, a survey was conducted among 892 adults. To find out how many of them experience that is crying “feels” while listening or when they hear a certain kind of music. The initial result showed that it is not unusual to be moved to tears when you hear a tune. Approximately 89.9% of the people in the study said they had experienced that feeling. They want to cry whenever they hear the music. They were also asked to rank their feelings to accompany the response following 16 emotions which include happiness, anxiety, euphoria, awe, depression, sadness, pain, etc. In the end, the researchers divided the people into two groups – those who cry because of sadness (63%) and those who felt in awe (36.7%).

Psychology of Personalities

The brain reacting to musicThe participants were then given a psychological test to be able to classify them according to the five personality characteristics:

  • extraversion
  • openness to experience
  • neuroticism
  • agreeableness
  • conscientiousness

After the test was done, the researchers found out that those who have high neuroticism ranking scale. They feel sad when they had been moved to tears by music. Likewise, those people who ranked high in the openness to “experience” feel like crying because they are in so much awe.

This basically explains why music can give you that feeling like you want to cry when you hear it. It actually depends on the person or what that person is experiencing that moment he or she understands that music.

Should You Hire a Wedding Planner: A List of Pros and Cons

Congratulations! You’re finally getting married!

Save yourself from stressBy now you’ve probably taken all the time you need to celebrate and bask in the thought of finally tying the knot with your significant other and might now be wondering how best to make your dream wedding come true. Perhaps you’re thinking of busting out your box of arts and crafts and going DIY-crazy on everything. Or perhaps you’re thinking that, between dealing with the wedding budget, exasperating family members, unsolicited advice, and living your everyday life, the least you want to do is to be dumping glitters on a personalized wedding invitation for a distant aunt.

Should you hire a wedding planner? We’ve come up with a list of reasons why you may want or not want to hire another pair of helping hands for your big day.

The Pros

Hiring a wedding planner means hiring a professional

Let’s face it, not every one of us is particularly blessed with the skills required to micromanage an event that involves a lot of details (and by “a lot” we mean A LOT). You may be the type of person who does not do well under immense pressure or hates organizing a huge event. If so, you’ll benefit from hiring a professional whose sole job is to mind all the teeny-tiny details surrounding your big day.

They are in-charge of troubleshooting any mishaps that may occur before and during your wedding day. A supplier backed out? They got your back. Your wedding band can’t make it to your ceremony in time? No doubt they’ll handle that and get Around Town Entertainment in Connecticut (CT) in a jiffy.

A good wedding planner will bring fresh, exciting ideas to the table

As professionals in their field, wedding planners keep themselves in the loop on the latest wedding and design trends. Their experience (they’ve been doing this for far longer than you, for one) and input are therefore invaluable in bringing your wedding visions into fruition.

Planners have plenty of connections

They can hook you up with suppliers, venues, and providers that you wouldn’t even think of approaching on your own. An experienced wedding planner also has inside knowledge of the industry and knows a trick or two on how to stretch your given budget.

All this means less stress for you! You don’t want to turn into the kind of bride horror stories and viral social media posts are made of, right? With a wedding planner, you’ll have all the time to relax and enjoy the thrill of the days leading up to your wedding.

The Cons

Hiring a wedding planner may take away some of the intimacy of the wedding

There is a special feeling involved when you have handpicked every detail of the wedding – from the save-the-dates to the wedding souvenirs down to the after-party playlist. There is a certain feeling of pride, for instance, if and when a guest praises a particular item that you crafted by hand. All this can be lost by hiring someone who will instead handle these details for you.

Limited control

It might be hard for you to relinquish control on the minute details of your wedding preparations. This is especially true if you are the type who is very hands-on and would like to be involved in every aspect of the preparation. Some of the anxiety you might feel in giving up the reins to a professional might be alleviated by having a planner who thoroughly understands and is 100% committed to your vision.

Well-planned wedding is a happy weddingSpeaking of, finding a planner whose style, values and vision match yours can be a little bit difficult. A common mistake brides commit when hiring a planner is settling for someone who might charge less but with whom they don’t quite connect with. Your relationship with your wedding planner must be quite like with a trusted friend or confidante. Go with someone who understands and respects your wishes but also possesses enough guts to tell you when your wishes won’t work. This way, you can be sure that you get the best value for your money.

Hiring a wedding planner is an added cost

Wedding planners are like tattoos – those that are good aren’t cheap, and those that are cheap are probably not good. If you feel your wedding budget is quite tight, perhaps a wedding planner isn’t the best course of action for you. If you think you need help but are on a tight budget, try seeking the help of your bridesmaid and trusted friends. Hiring an on-the-day coordinator is also a less expensive option to ensure every kink gets to be ironed out on the day itself.

Starting an Effective Workout Routine for Seniors

There have been quite numerous benefits of regular exercise that have been documented by scientists and fitness experts through time. These benefits are wide-ranging – from achieving healthier body weight to building up and strengthening muscles to achieving improved balance and flexibility – and can apply to different age groups. Through recent studies, however, we can conclude that seniors have more to gain from regular exercise than most younger adults. Why is this?

As we age, our bodies weaken. Our muscle mass begins to decrease up to 3-5% for every decade of our lives starting from the age of 40. We also become more susceptible to illnesses and health conditions. Lastly, our cognitive functions also tend to slow down. It is in this sense that seniors specifically benefit from a regular workout routine. Exercise strengthens one’s balance and flexibility, therefore reducing risks of mobility-related injury. Exercise also stimulates one’s immune system and helps prevent chronic diseases. Last but not the least, exercise improves one’s overall mood and mental well-being. Overall, exercise helps seniors achieve a better quality of life even as they age.

Managing Abilities and Expectations

That said, one key point to understand before starting an exercise routine is that seniors have different needs and abilities compared to younger people. Realistically speaking, most seniors would likely have pre-existing conditions and health history that may render certain routines challenging, ineffective or outright dangerous. Some elderlies may also have been experiencing lack of mobility, poor eyesight, and muscle weakness before their desire to exercise.

Doing low impact exercisesThe first step, therefore, in establishing an effective and safe workout routine for elders is to have an accurate scope of their abilities and to manage their expectations accordingly. Home health & hospice care experts recommend choosing an exercise program that is within the elders’ physical abilities. Eliminate any exercise routine that will aggravate an existing medical problem. For instance, running and other high-impact activities may not be advisable for elderlies with hip conditions or have had hip replacement procedures. Said exercises are totally out of the question for seniors with limited mobility as well. There are, however, different alternatives to these activities that you can explore.

Your Best Bets

Here are some examples of activities that can be incorporated in elderlies’ exercise routine. Again, keep in mind the scope of their abilities and make sure to manage their expectations accordingly.


Walking is a low-impact exercise that is great for seniors who are just about to begin a regular workout habit. It is easily accessible and does not need special equipment to be conducted. In fact, all you need for this activity is a pair of sensible shoes. To top it all, walking also boosts the mood, especially if done in locations with fresh air and majestic views. It can also be an activity for socialization as it can be accomplished by pairs or even in groups.


For water-loving seniors, swimming is a perfect low-impact exercise that presents minimal risks of injury. Swimming increases our body’s oxygen intake and allows for a complete workout of the body’s entire muscle group. Swimming is great for elderlies suffering from arthritis as it is gentle on the joints. Not only that but it also increases flexibility in the hips, arms, neck, and legs, providing for improved mobility and better comfort for seniors. It is also an incredibly fun way to reduce stress and keep negative thoughts (and feelings) at bay.


Granted, cycling is a more rigorous activity than those listed above. Beyond that, it also requires equipment (a bike, helmet, and other safety gear) when starting. The best thing about cycling, however, is that it is never a boring chore. Seniors can ride their bikes within their communities or even go out and explore nearby trails and parks. Elderlies can also choose to opt short, casual ride or go for a more demanding route. Most importantly, cycling is a great way to exercise the cardiovascular muscles and, at the same time, helps seniors maintain their optimum weight.

Water Aerobics

Another great cardiovascular exercise for seniors is Water Aerobics. Like swimming, water aerobics is a low-impact activity that minimizes the risk of incurring injuries. What makes this activity different from normal aerobics is how the water creates ideal amount of resistance for folks with limited mobility. When surrounded by water, this also helps strengthen balance and minimizes any falling risks.

Other Alternatives

Again, depending on their abilities and limitations, there are other fun activities that seniors can do as an alternative to a straight-up exercise routine. Some great alternative to aerobics, for instance, are Tai Chi and Yoga. Aside from improving flexibility, these activities also incorporate relaxation and meditation that can be good for one’s mental health.

If you are looking for something more dynamic, why not try mixing in a jolt of lively music to the exercise routine? Zumba is a fun new activity that combines dancing and aerobics for maximum benefit. Another great – and quite popular – alternative is to sign up for dancing lessons. Through experienced instructors, seniors can either learn new moves or relive their glory days in the dance floor.
Lastly, elderlies who love outdoor sports can also engage in low-impact and non-rigorous activities such as golf or badminton.

It is easy to think that old age qualifies one to stop being on the move and stop caring for one’s self. However, none can be further from the truth. In fact, it all the more serves as encouragement to stay in tip-top shape. Through a combination of proper diet and useful exercise, senior citizens can keep themselves healthy and in control of their lives.

Interview with Dr. Rod Schlegel

The issue of whether the performance of dry needling (sometimes referred to as trigger point dry needling or intramuscular manual therapy) is within the professional and legal scope of physical therapist practice continues to be a question posed to state regulatory boards and agencies. The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) created this document to provide background information for state chapters, regulatory entities, and providers who are dealing with this issue.

APTA is the national professional association representing more than 77,000 physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, and students nationwide.

Dry Needling by Physical Therapists

Dry Needling is an invasive technique used by physical therapists (where allowed by state law) to treat myofascial pain that uses a dry needle, without medication or injection, which is inserted into areas of the muscle known as trigger points. A trigger point describes a taut band of skeletal muscle located within a larger muscle group. Trigger points can be tender to the touch and can refer pain to distant parts of the body. Physical therapists utilize dry needling with the goal of releasing/inactivating the trigger points and relieving pain. Preliminary research supports that dry needling improves pain control, reduces muscle tension, normalizes biochemical and electrical dysfunction of motor endplates, and facilitates an accelerated return to active rehabilitation.

Numerous terms have been used in conjunction with dry needling. Some of the more common terms include trigger point manual therapy, trigger point dry needling, and intramuscular manual therapy. While the term “intramuscular manual therapy” may be considered by some to be a more accurate description of dry needling when performed by physical therapists as the technique is closely associated with manual therapy, APTA recognizes that dry needling is the more widely accepted and utilized term. The term ‘intramuscular manual therapy’ should not be misinterpreted as an endorsement by APTA to bill dry needling utilizing the CPT code 97140 (manual therapy). Physical therapists should check with the insurance payor to see if it has issued any policies regarding billing of dry needling

Physical Therapy Professional Organizations Positions on Dry Needling

To achieve a better understanding of the use of dry needling in the physical therapist profession nationally and internationally, APTA reached out to the following US organizations:
• Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT)
• The Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy (FSBPT)

In addition, APTA reached out to a number of international physical therapy organizations:
• Australian Physiotherapy Association (APA)
• Canadian Physical Therapy Association (CPA)
• United Kingdom Chartered Society of Physiotherapy

Two questions were asked by APTA of the organizations:
1) Have you adopted a formal or established an information statement on the use of dry needling? and,
2) Do you have a formal or informal process for including dry needling, or other “new” tests, measures, or interventions into your scope of practice for physical therapists/physiotherapists?

As to the first question, all groups either said “yes,” or indicated that they intentionally do not specify procedures in their scope but rather define the scope broadly. In each of those cases that did not specify but defined their scope broadly and, with the exception of the UK, they had subgroups or other documents that strongly implied or made it explicit that dry needling is performed and supported by the profession. The scope of practice in the UK would not exclude it.

The responses to the second question were more mixed; however, the majority continued to indicate that they had a process to define scope but not one that would specify procedures or interventions within the scope.

Interview with Dr. Neil Spielholz

This curriculum guideline on Physical Agents/Electrotherapy represents curricular content recommendations based upon feedback from physical therapy educators via a survey conducted by the Section on Clinical Electrophysiology and recommendations from the Electrotherapy/physical Agents
Practice Committee of the Section. New topics will be added when evidenced-based, clinical research provides documented support from controlled or randomized trials published in peer-reviewed journals.

Individual practice setting, Practice Acts, Rules and Regulations regarding physical therapy practice may determine practice limitations and role delineation.

Terminal Behavioral Objectives

After didactic and clinical education, given the results of a client’s evaluation and history, the graduate physical therapist will:
Given the results of a patient/client’s evaluation and history, and the plan of care established by a PT, the PTA student will be expected to:

IDENTIFY, DESCRIBE AND EXPLAIN indications for interventions utilizing physical agents and electrotherapeutic modalities.

IDENTIFY contraindications & precautions to the application of therapeutic modalities.
SELECT the appropriate modality (PTA Students, within the established plan of care)
APPLY the modality in a safe & effective manner.
EXPLAIN normal and abnormal physiologic responses and psychologic reactions to treatment

MODIFY modality application as indicated by the patient/client’s response. (PT A students, through consultation with the PT)
ASSESS treatment outcome in response to the application of a physical agent or electrotherapeutic modality.
INTERPRET patient/client’s response to treatment and make clinical decisions regarding treatment plan. (PTA students, through consultation with the PT)
DOCUMENT specific treatment parameters, application techniques, and treatment outcome.

Physical Agents & Electrotherapeutic Modalities Content Outline

I. Prerequisite and/or Concurrent Information
Basic Clinical tests and measurements
Muscle Strength and Endurance
Sensory Perception Testing
cutaneous pain, temperature, touch, pressure
cognitive awareness
Reflex Testing
Basic gait analysis
Neuroanatomy and Basic Neurophysiology
Cardiovascular System
Peripheral Circulatory System
Heart Rate, Blood Pressure (Vital signs)
Musculoskeletal System
Active & Passive Motion
Basic Postural Assessment
Human Systems and Cellular Physiology
Human Anatomy: neural, muscular, skeletal
Clinical Histology and Pathology including but not limited to:
Inflammation, wounds (burns, ulcers, tissue trauma) & tissue healing
(skin, nerve, tendon, muscle, joint structures)
Pain and Pain Control
Circulatory Disorders
Fundamentals of physics, biology, chemistry
Clinical Pharmacology:
Basic concepts related to potential interactions of drugs with
clinically administered physical agents as appropriate. (e.g. sensitivity to UV, wound care,
inflammatory conditions, clotting factors)
Clinical Neurology, Myology

II. Physical Therapy Clinical Knowledge and Skills
Conductive Heating Agents:
Hot Packs
Deep Heating Agents:
Thermal Diathermy, Short-wave diathermy
Cold packs, Ice packs, Cold Compresses
Ice Massage
Contrast Immersion baths
Cold Compression Devices
“vapocoolant sprays”
Low Power laser

Physical Therapy Clinical Knowledge and Skills continued
Mechanical Traction
Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Devices
Electrotherapy: contemporary electrical stimulation programs and required characteristics
of stimulators utilized for:
Pain control
Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for:
Muscle Strengthening
Restricted Joint Motion
Hypertonic/Hypotonic Muscle (e.g. spasticity)
Activation of Muscle for Joint Positioning,
Postural Control or Enhancement of
Functional Movement or Motor Control
Tissue Healing and Tissue Repair
Enhancement of Wound Heating & Circulation
Osteogenesis, Edema Control
Medication Delivery: Iontophoresis of Analgesics &
Anti-inflammatory Agents, etc.
Electrical Stimulation of Denervated Muscle
Other Topics for Inclusion:
Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
Pulsed Ultrasound (Non-thermal US)
Pulsed Radio Frequency Radiation (non-thermal)
Biofeedback: electromyographic & temperature

III. Common Features of Physical Agents & Therapeutic Modalities Topics
Physics of Heat, Light, Electricity, Mechanical Principles
Fundamental Concepts &Terminology
Electrotherapy: Describe, Differentiate and Recognize
Types of Electrical Current, Common Amplitude and Time
Dependent Characteristics of Electrical Stimuli
Physiologic Effects of Heat, Electromagnetic Radiation, Electricity,
Mechanical Forces {Normal, Desired effects vs. abnormal or adverse effects)
Calibration and Maintenance
Safety Considerations
Principles of Operation
Indications for Clinical Application
Clinical Application Principles and Procedures
Clinical Problem Solving Skills (case study examples)
Supervised laboratory Experiences (Academic and Clinical)
Contraindications/ precautions and potential adverse reactions to the application of each physical

Integumentary/Wound Management Curriculum Recommendations Updated

The Section is happy to announce completion of the 2014 updates to the APTA’s Section on Clinical Electrophysiology and Wound Management Guide for Integumentary/Wound Management Content in Professional Physical Therapist Education. Originally approved by APTA in late 2007, the 2014 revisions were completed and accepted by APTA on July 17th.

This document was primarily designed to assist entry-level physical therapist education programs in developing integumentary curriculum. Section representatives have delivered two well-attended one-day Combined Sections Meeting (CSM) preconference sessions for educators over the past five years based on these recommendations.

It is our hope that by keeping this document up-to-date, it will serve as the “go-to” reference for educators when planning curriculum, clinical instructors in planning integumentary experiences for students during clinical rotations/internships, and for informing students regarding entry-level expectations in integumentary care. As this document has been utilized and referenced in the Section’s ABPTS petition to establish a wound management specialty, it also appears these recommendations are also being used to inform other stakeholders regarding entry-level integumentary content.

The next review cycle is slated to begin sometime in 2020. At that time a call for volunteers will go out to the membership for new/additional Task Force volunteers. A big “thank you” goes to the current review cycle Task Force: Harriett Loehne, Luther Kloth, Karen Albaugh, and Karen Gibbs. Additional appreciation goes to Lisa Culver, APTA Clinical Practice & Research, and Jody Frost, APTA Lead Academic Affairs Specialist, for their assistance in the review and approval process.

Registration is Open for November 13 Ultrasound Webinar

Registration is open for a one-hour webinar that will present evidence to support the use of ultrasound to enhance the inflammatory, proliferative and remodeling phases of tissue repair, to reduce soft tissue stiffness and contracture, and ultimately to improve function.

Title: Ultrasound – Applying the Evidence to Achieve Effective Outcomes in Musculoskeletal Conditions 
  November 13
Time: 2:00pm EST

Detailed Course Description: The literature points to differences among researchers about what ultrasound parameters to use to treat common musculoskeletal conditions. Meta-analyses generally find weak evidence in support of therapeutic ultrasound but the studies do not account for a possible dose-response pattern associated with benefit; trials are included based on methodology scores rather than appropriateness of treatment.

My approach was to critically appraise positive and negative ultrasound studies to identify possible dose-response patterns that could lead to development of clinical guidelines for treating musculoskeletal conditions. In the process, I found that incomplete reporting of ultrasound parameters was a challenge; journal reviewers should be more demanding of authors in this regard. In addition, I examined relevant basic science literature.

Research deals with two main indications for therapeutic ultrasound: using pulsed ultrasound to enhance tissue repair after injury and using continuous ultrasound to decrease chronic tissue stiffness. Laboratory studies are helpful for establishing optimal ultrasound settings for tissue heating alongside clarifying the limitations in terms of tissue depth and area that can be heated. Clinical studies confirm that ultrasound is ineffective for treating stiffness involving large tissue volumes.  My recommendations include the need to treat healing tissue for longer duration and more frequently than have been used traditionally.

Course Objectives: 

  • Critically appraise the literature on ultrasound
  • Demonstrate the importance of being a discerning consumer of ultrasound literature
  • Demonstrate that using ultrasound to heat tissues need not be a matter of guess work
  • Apply the evidence to develop effective treatment protocols
  • Clarify the limitations of ultrasound as a therapeutic agent

About The Presenter:  Dr. Nussbaum is an Associate Professor in the Department of Physical Therapy at the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, where she instructs the curriculum in Electrophysical Agents. She is cross-appointed to Western University, London, Ontario, within the MClSc degree in the wound healing field, and to Toronto Rehab as an adjunct scientist. She has practiced as a physical therapist in a major teaching hospital in the city of Toronto for more than 20 years. Her research mainly involves the use of ultrasound, laser light and ultraviolet radiation in tissue repair. Her work is published in numerous peer-reviewed journals and book chapters. She has held research grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, The Physiotherapy Foundation of Canada, the University of Toronto, Medical Education Research Fund, The Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation and the Bickell Foundation of Canada. She is the receipient of numerous awards including the prestigious Silver Quill Award for the best quantitative research in Physiotherapy Canada, 2007, the University of Toronto Colin Wolff Award for Excellence in Continuing Medical Education and the Canadian Physiotherapy Association award for excellence in research. She is a frequent speaker at national and international conferences and regularly instructs courses involving Electrophysical Agents.